Email: Doug at DougBuchanan.com
30 July 2003
If there is any error or contradiction in the following, please assist the author's desire to correct it, but you might wisely first ask several questions of your conclusion, because the author did.
Robert Hackett, Judge, Washington State Superior Court
Washington State Superior Court Judge Robert Hackett is a superlative example of what happens to a human mind infected with the petty power of a court judge job.
If you can find a more pitiable and entertaining court judge, please inform the author.
Judge Hackett has defined Washington State Courts, and perhaps American courts, and thus court judges, on indelible court record, as Cuban styled courts and judges, where the expressed threat of torture is a lawful process for judges to silence the respectful expression of the principles of law, in a court of law, that defend a citizen from the actions of malicious government personnel wielding the power to openly violate the law.
The higher courts will be given the opportunity to let Judge Robert Hackett's precedent stand, to define American courts to the people other nations, for their laughter when gullible Americans attempt the usual lies about the superior system of American justice.
Judge Hackett is not an aberration. He identified the current level of corruption, arrogance and maliciousness among American court judges. His actions were knowingly upheld, without dissent, by the judges of the Washington State Court of Appeals, and so far, the Washington State Supreme Court. His actions could only happen as a result of inherently progressive, institutionally advanced corruption of power among fundamentally lawless American government thugs. He is a product and representative of American court misjurisprudence.
Nothing known to humans more damages the reasoning ability of the human mind, than power.
Write that sentence, then write a note each time you discover an example of the phenomenon, until you recognize the extent of its effect, and more importantly for your utility, the specific nature of its effect.
Your goal is to understand, to the extent that you can describe in line-item detail, the mechanisms that produce illogical (contradicted) conclusions from identified data presented to a human mind. If you fail, you will end up as dumb as American adults, and that should be horribly embarrassing to you. If it is not, you have already fooled your mind into achieving nothing beyond the ludicrous illogicalities of American adults, such as those displayed by Judge Hackett. If so, you would waste your time to read further, and would do better to just play any of the computer games probably in the basic software package of your computer.
First consider a couple dramatic analogies, for reason. If you wish to learn useful knowledge about a concept of human action, look for the commonalities of that concept within a spectrum human actions. If you consider only your initial view of only the issue at question, or only the people involved, you will not understand how any human mind processes the type of data which repeatedly produces the same contradiction in diverse situations, because of a single commonality. Select extreme examples, to identify the full spectrum of the concept from which you can verify or disprove your initial conclusions.
How does an otherwise seemingly common human mind create and attempt to sustain an inherently untenable, obviously damaging contradiction?
The first analogy, among billions of this nature throughout history: When Lt. Calley and the men in his US Army unit pointed their M-16 rifles at the terrified, unarmed children, women and old men in the village of Mai Lie Vietnam, and slaughtered them all, the minds of those otherwise normal US citizens recruited into the Army, identical to the current US military personnel, genuinely and sincerely believed that they were doing what was right, least they would have not done so. Is that not true? This was not just one individual who went unexplainably crazy from stress, and was not those barbaric, uneducated foreigners of a primitive third world society swinging machetes. A process of the human mind, inherently within your mind and that of Judge Hackett, created an illogical conclusion from data that did not support the conclusion, and effected a damaging action. That process of the human mind was identical regardless of the situation which facilitated only a different degree of damage to others.
The biological process in the mind is the same whether the US Army murderers see the faces of the mothers and babies they are shooting with M-16 rifles in Vietnam, or do not see them but know they are inherently there when US Air Force murderers are dropping bombs on Afghanistan villages, or Washington State Court judges are threatening torture if someone respectfully expresses the principles of law that defend them in a court of law. Among all rational human minds, the involved data of the examples does not support the mind's conclusion to so act, but the mind defies its own reasoning process to maliciously damage another human. Power-damaged minds of adults routinely do that. Do whatever it takes, and go to great effort to ask the type questions to train your mind to retain its originally designed reasoning process, for every possible situation, to consistently produce rational conclusions, or you will end up as pitiable and openly ridiculed as Judge Robert Hackett and other American adults.
The slaughter of many innocent people, or defrauding a person of one penny, or of the right to speak even one sentence, utilizes the same neuron routing after the brain's prior trained, electro-chemical decision to effect a conclusion that does not match the data. If you fail to learn the original contradiction within that biological process, you could end up as intellectually embarrassing as Judge Robert Hackett and his American court colleagues whose minds genuinely believe it is lawful and appropriate to criminally defraud a person of his right to free speech.
Another analogy, among an endless series of such ongoing examples: The officer and enlisted personnel of the highly self-flattering and popularized US Army Delta Force, ordinary, educated US citizens, except for the increasing percentage of uneducated, illiterate foreign mercenaries hired by the US Army, just like the US citizens currently in other units of the military, placed an explosive shaped charge on the roof of the Dividian Christian Church in Waco Texas. They placed it precisely above where they knew the women and children in the church would seek refuge when the FBI and Army personnel, in Army tanks, started crushing the walls of the outer rooms, and shooting into the building, with rifles and grenade launchers. Then when the attack produced the intended effect of herding the children and women to the last refuge in their church, those US Army personnel detonated the shaped charge to slaughter the terrified victims, and even filmed the explosion for which they and their United States Army colleagues were so proud. The bodies, contorted from the lethal dose of internationally outlawed, muscle-contracting CS nerve gas pumped into the church from the US Army tanks, also charred from the flame created by the intentionally flammable mixture of CS gas ignited with Army 40mm explosive grenades, were riddled with shrapnel from the shaped charge. Several other filmed and verified actions of the US Army and FBI Waco Killers were equally repugnant to the rational human mind. Because no US police or military personnel stood in public to denounce that slaughter, and demand punishment for such perfidy among their ranks, the inherent lies of their incessant self-flattery and espoused patriotism are identified. But the minds of each of those otherwise normal people, identical to the design of Judge Hackett's mind, and otherwise your mind, genuinely and sincerely believed that they were doing good in slaughtering innocent people, including children, in the sanctuary of their church. Those government minds had been trained to robotically believe whatever they were told by a person with a superior-sounding title, such as, Captain, but also including the title of, adult, when they were younger, and trained to never ask effective questions of what they were told to do, no matter how illogical the order.
Ask the most ruthless questions your mind can devise, of every human claiming a superior title, including that of, adult. Rationally hound them until you get an answer you can write, with their name, or you prove that their mind is not sufficiently intelligent to produce an answer, and thus their title is nothing more than a fool's illusion proving them and anyone who believes them as a fool. Then ask your own mind those questions, and write your answers. If you do not do that, you will soon be the adult fool, most likely with other titles as well, laughed at by every commonly intelligent person.
A person who asks no questions, or too few questions, or ineffective questions, is easily trained to believe that it is lawful to kill people because a superior officer rhetorically defines the victims as infidels, while a different superior officer spews the words, Arab terrorists, and another superior officer uses the words, Communist Viet Cong, while another says, Western Imperialists, and another, drug dealers, or cult members, or Jews, niggers, honkies, Taliban, pick a name, and a court judge trained his mind in the identical manner to believe it is lawful to deny another person his right to freedom of speech because he is called a defendant or respondent. In actual fact, the other guy is an inherently equal human, by design, with a mind of the same design as yours. You cannot kill, imprison, rob, silence or otherwise damage enough of them to ever solve a problem by those tactics which only create your next problems. But you can easily learn the precise reason the other guy makes each decision, and correct any flaw therein, by the reasoning process, if you first ask enough questions to learn the design of your own mind, and thus his.
The controlling concept for training your mind is not what you and the other guy are said to be.
The controlling concept is to ask effective questions.
To not ask the superior officer to reveal the proof of the description, and reveal the prevailing written law for that flawlessly exact description and the demand of the superior officer, is to therefore create minds so ignorant of the process of reasoning, that they can extend the process of raw power to any point in the gradient at their disposal, including its extreme, without any intervening question that would demarcate the process of power from the process of human reasoning. Who but fools, such as government personnel, law school professors and other adults, would train subordinates or students to do as they are told rather than question everything they are told, to thus preclude the correction of the obviously rampant mistakes humans make every day, including the slaughter of innocent people in Wag The Dog Wars, and the denial of human rights.
The only functional difference between Judge Hackett and the Waco Killers, for the results of their mind's identical decision-making process, was that the Waco Killers were given rifles, machine guns, grenade launchers, an array of explosives, helicopters, tanks and nerve gas, while Hackett was given only a gavel and a bevy of lightly armed thugs called court security. The controlling concept common to both situations remains as the mind's trained, decision-making process, between the use of reasoning and the use of power. The superficial results are identified by the physical toys in hand. You can easily identify from Judge Hackett's actions described below, what he would have done if his job was within the team of US government Waco Killers sicced on some Christians in their church, by Clinton and Reno. His mind was trained to see other humans as inferior and enemies, and ask himself no questions of his Pavlovian response to the use of raw power.
Part of the puzzle was to give those minds their own titles of power, below the titles instructing them to do as they are told, but above the lesser titled or untitled people therefore available to manipulate or attack with raw power. The easiest way to fool a mind is to give it a title. It will therefore instantly believe that it is superior to lesser titled or untitled minds, and may therefore make the decisions for such inferior humans. Any title is adequate, even the title of, adult. Titles are just cheap arrangements of letters identifying power without a reasoning device (human brain). Nothing is more gullible and easily fooled with rhetorical illusions, than the human mind which does not question everything. Ask real questions about titles and credentials to the extent of understanding every aspect of their hollow illusions, before you foolishly accept them.
There are no president schools, yet upon election, the minds of presidents sincerely believe that they somehow became superior to other humans. There are no court judge schools. Judges are just political hacks appointed by inherently corrupted politicians. And if you sufficiently question the titles conferred by schools and other such institutions, you will discover that the title holders were trained to not effectively question their instructors, least the students would publicly prove the embarrassing ignorance of the instructors. The instructors thus produced only progressively more stagnated minds fooled by the illusion of titles which only flatter the instructors for the illusion of being so intelligent that they can confer titles on therefore inherently less intelligent people.
Because they were rewarded rather than punished for their actions, the government's Waco Killers, Judge Hackett and all of their titled ilk in every society, will continue to illogically attack and damage fellow humans, and never ask any questions of their actions. Ask those questions, or your mind will end up so gullible that you can be given a cheap title and thus act like Hackett and government employed killers. Your mind will sincerely believe that you are protecting society from those evil Christians, Afghans, Iraqis, Vietnamese, criminals, Jews, Muslims, terrorists, people who dare to ask questions of titled government personnel, and any other rhetorical illusion described as a demon to your unquestioning mind by people with titles. The therefore ignorant title holders become the next instructors flattering themselves by conferring more titles of ignorance.
The full and complete knowledge of the electro-chemically induced, addicting "feeling" of raw power over other humans (chemical release in the brain), created within the human mind by an array of identifiable stimuli, such as acquiring a title, is not a mystery. That concept is easily within your ability to thoroughly understand, but is hopelessly beyond the understanding of adults whose minds stopped asking questions the moment they perceived themselves as, adults. By that title alone, adults assumed power over mere children, without need to ask or answer questions. The adult who relies on power over children, rather than the tedious process of conveying all the data for the therefore questioned and verified reasoning for an action, proves the reasoning inability of the adult, and trains the child to be no more. Is the young person taught to look forward to age 21, and thus the title of adult, like the lieutenant who strives for the title of general, or to the knowledge that can produce conclusions that no one is capable of contradicting with even the best questions? Answer the question. Strive for the latter, or you will end up like a court judge making a fool of yourself without the ability to make an uncontradicted decision.
Did you want to live in a society where people obeyed the law because it is the law, written by idiots with titles such as legislators and judges, as did the Nazi German society which by its laws lawfully slaughtered 6 million of its Jewish citizens and 7 million gypsies (dissidents and other citizens sufficiently intelligent to ask questions), or do you want to live in a society where people do not harm each other because they understand the reasoning of not harming anyone? Answer the question as it is asked. Notice that adults, and especially court judges and other government dolts craving the power to harm whomever they wish, under color of law, will rhetorically tap dance through contorted arrangements of words to avoid the obviously accurate answer, and end up demanding that everyone obey the laws written by power-damaged minds. They literally cannot comprehend the meaning of the millions of American statute and court case laws that contradict each other, rendering it humanly impossible to obey the laws therein proven as written by idiots with government titles.
The common adult concept of telling children to do as the adult says, not as the adult does, is the concept of defining the adult's mind as unable to identify the process of reasoning which easily resolves such contradictions. An intelligent person would tell their children to question everything, with real questions, and write the answers, then cautiously do as their knowledge suggests. If the reasoning offered by the adult is adequate, as is easily verifiable with effective questions, the resulting action of the child will be what every intelligent adult would verify as proper and beneficial. If the reasoning is inadequate, the adult is less intelligent than the child.
So the case exampled at this website entered the next trial process, the determination of the value of the property, Act III of the show, if we call the Yakima City's administrative process to evade duties and instead run to the costly courts, as the first act of this amusing show. You may enjoy Act III.
Counsel for the property owner appeared in the court room, on schedule. Before crossing the bar he requested a court under the jurisdiction of the common law, as is his right. Judge Hackett, a classic power-damaged mind unwilling to willfully acquiesce to his paid job of administering the written law rather than wielding his personal power of office, rhetorically tap danced, slithered, twirled, twisted and skittered through an array of illusions in his attempt to not acknowledge the jurisdiction of the prevailing law in a court of law. His reaction was identical to a small child attempting to find an excuse for an action of obvious wrongdoing. The property owner therefore patiently used several arrangements of words which eventually resulted in the power-damaged and thus confused mind of Robert Hackett expressly stating that the property owner was not being denied his requested court under the jurisdiction of the common law.
The common law is inordinately precise. It is the only law designed to remove from effect any laws that contradict each other, and ascertain the prevailing law, by way of an interesting system of nearly flawless reasoning process. It is the jurisdiction of choice among honest people. It contains only two known remaining contradictions in regard to obscure matters simply waiting for a court opportunity to resolve them, if they ever emerge in real cases. The common law leaves court judges no lawful authority to impose their addicting power of office above the written prevailing law, and is therefore hated with a seething passion by the power-damaged minds of American court judges. Power-damaged minds fear and loathe the common law more than death itself, because the reasoning-based common law is the death of power, and power is greater than any mere human victim of its grasp.
In contrast, for those who acquiesce to the inferior laws by an amusing process of which court personnel keep even their own offspring ignorant, the millions of case laws of all the inferior laws leave court judges the lawful power to summarily decree any decision of their whim, to the extent of summary execution or declaring lawful the actions of the government's Waco Killers, without possible punishment for an otherwise unlawful decision creating a crime. Because every human action and thought is a crime under the inferior laws, under their jurisdiction court judges are kings who can pick and chose which laws they wish to apply to friends or enemies, or the victims of a judge's bad hair day.
But of course in the subsequent proceedings, the mind of Judge Hackett, trained by the aforementioned law school process of never effectively questioning his superiors, and never questioning identified contradictions which illuminate the flaw of personal power, was intellectually incapable of actually administering the common law. Hackett immediately reverted to the application of raw personal power under color of inferior laws, much to the amusement of the property owner. Power-damaged minds are the best entertainment on the rock, proving that humans are a brand new experiment still stumbling around, lost in the intellectual dark ages. Do not miss the show by remaining ignorant of it, as is Hackett and his ilk of adults.
At question before the court was the fair market value of the property, to determine the price the City of Yakima must pay for the seized property.
The written law is always precise, by immutable definition of the written words creating each sentence of written law. The related law for Hackett's court process required the determination of the fair market value, not more, not less. Determination of any price more or less, would be a violation of the law.
The contradiction effecting court process to determine the lawful price for the property was created by the incompetent Yakima City Council members identifying their mind's inability to simply do what inherently equal adult human minds do in court process, examine all the verifiable facts, and synthesize the conclusion that does not contradict the facts or the law. Court is a process for therefore admittedly incompetent adults who cannot do what other adults prove that adults can do with the same reasoning process under the much more expensive court ritual. Read that again, and perhaps write it. Like all politicians, the incompetent, self-flattering Yakima City Council members, Mary Place and her colleagues, routinely evade the work part of their job by shoveling taxpayer money into the pockets of rich lawyers who are equally as incompetent and self-flattering, to provide observers with an ongoing comedy.
For this web page, we will set aside the real question at issue, that is, the monetary value of the City chaps refusing to agree to obey the law and thus admittedly holding the involved property under the damaging threat of changing the rules to punish the property owner for obeying the rules, to thus seize the property or its value without compensation, as the proven intent of the City chaps. That would be the full value of an extended area of property, plus a series of involved processes, effects and damages.
The court's lesser excuse for claiming jurisdiction to ascertain the value of the property is fully adequate to prove the intellectual void of Judge Hackett and the other Washington State court judges.
The difference in the fair market value of the property, otherwise immaterial to the property owner who would have accepted what was first offered, was defined by the difference in the zoning of the property. Two different, contradicted zonings for the same property, illogically imposed and maintained by the Yakima City council members, under different laws, created two different lawfully defined fair market values. Which value and therefore which law prevails for the application of law to seize the property? Court was designed to answer such questions when the participants, in this case the City sorts only, are so illiterate and intellectually void that they cannot simply look-up the prevailing law to ascertain which applies. One zoning and thus value was defined under an inferior law of legislative fiat that the City advertised. The other zoning and thus value was defined under the common law and also under an obscure inferior law, both of which the City sorts wanted to keep hidden to keep their offspring and Yakima citizens ignorant and thus defrauded of their private property rights.
A person whose mind did not question and thus did not understand the concepts already discussed on this website, would suggest that Judge Hackett, supposedly an impartial person of a separate branch of government, lavishly paid more than the City Council members, would simply carry out the impartial process to determine which law and thus which value constituted the fair market value for the property.
Hackett was given a text-book perfect opportunity by the property owner who offered to assist him, expressly stated he wished to obey the law, and was not contesting whatever the prevailing law identified as required. Could you, society and the law ask for any more perfect and efficient opportunity for the administration of law and social process? Who would maliciously attack such a citizen appearing in court for process of law? The property owner was saying: Just show me the written law, and it will be obeyed, because the City Council dolts refused to do so.
But Judge Hackett's mind shares the controlling contradiction of the minds of the City sorts. They both hold power. Their power-damaged minds are emotionally angered by the written law's limit on their personal power. Their minds literally cannot acquiesce to the rule of written law. Power can never willingly surrender any portion of itself to reasoning, and still exist as a concept within the otherwise reasoning-based human mind. The City Council sorts and the judge wanted to seize the property for an unlawful value other than its fair market value, just to prove their raw power to do so, and entrench another precedent for being able to violate the law with impunity, when the monetary difference was otherwise inconsequential.
Their minds cannot tolerate the questions that effect reasoning process above power process. How dare a mere lowly citizen without a title even suggest that the raw personal power of a titled mind is limited by any written law. How dare the lowly people of Yakima suggest that they hold any human rights above the raw personal power of Yakima City Council members and Washington State Court judges.
How dare an innocent mother and child think they can hide in the sanctuary of a church, from the guns and bombs of the great United States of America military forces.
If you are not laughing at the reptilian minds of American adults, as their own actions and support for malicious government idiots prove them to be, in full view of the world, you are missing their only show. And if you learn no more than American adults, others may notice the flickering of your tongue, on stage.
Therefore Judge Hackett, in criminal violation of the laws protecting the rights of the property owner, utilized a judge's raw power of office to simply decree that the prevailing law protecting the rights and property of the property owner could not be mentioned in court. And because a separate inferior law protected the same property rights, Hackett included that law in his unlawful decree banning the mention of such laws in a court of law, much to the amusement of the property owner. Hackett negated the reason for courts of law, and entrenched his raw power as a king, defining courts in the State of Washington.
Of course he did not do so in those words. He used the usual legalistic flimflam that easily fools fools who mindlessly believe adults rather than learn how to ask logical questions of their parents, school teachers and other titled adults. Such legalistic jargon and other con-artist flimflam of lawyers and their ilk are easily exposed by simple questions.
At request of the City sorts, through their amusingly pitiable lawyer, Hackett imposed a Limine.
If he had stated that he was summarily limiting the discussion in court, to whatever suited his whim, to thus deny the property owner his right of free speech and his right to introduce his case, by those words, even an unquestioning mind could figure out that something was wrong. But to illuminate how easily the unquestioning human mind can be fooled, lawyers and their self-titled ilk throughout human history have learned that they need only substitute Latin or other foreign words for the description of what they are doing. Unquestioning minds will therefore ask no questions, and will do as they are told because of the illusion of the unfamiliar words themselves, identical to the illusion of a title. If you are not laughing at humans who do not ask questions, you are missing their only show.
But of course the questioning mind asks the obvious question. What is a Limine?
Limines are not taught in the English language or in common American schools. They are a Latin rhetorical illusion, taught in American law schools as a routine con artist ploy, flimflam used only by lawyers so intellectually incapable that they are dependent upon fooling fools, to survive in society. But further, the Latin word is only one of the multiple layers of defense that power-damaged minds have progressively institutionalized to defend power from questions and other process of reasoning, ultimately concluding of course in the routine gunning down of even innocent women and children who are by any means associated with anyone who dares to ask questions of government thugs wielding raw power.
The property owner respectfully asked the court to reveal the law itself, that defined, in the written English words of the law itself, the foreign word, Limine, and the precise limits on its application. At some point it is inherent that the law demarcates the law of the Limine and the law of freedom of speech, by definition of their obvious contradiction. Who, impartially administering written law, with no threat to their job or salary for doing so, would refuse, if not a power-damaged mind emotionally enraged by easy questions because it is completely ignorant of how to simply answer questions, while its title had fooled it into believing that it was of superior intelligence to any lesser or non-titled human?
Therefore, to illuminate your own mind's current level of ability to relate the commonalities in examples of the same concept, precisely what mechanism caused the minds of normal US citizens, just like your son, daughter, mother, father, uncle, aunt, niece, nephew or neighbor who by chance got a US military job and a titled rank of any level, to point M-16 rifles at innocent, unarmed, terrified women and children in a village called Mai Lie in another country, who had not sufficiently kowtowed to some idiot power-damaged minds yammering a foreign language in Washington DC, and repeatedly pull the trigger, slaughtering them, one after another, and then do it again and again and again at Waco, Ruby Ridge and many other places, while no colleague in the US military would stand in public to denounce such human perfidy and repugnance of that institution? Answer the question, or ask the questions to verifiably identify the precise answer, or you will end up as so horribly incapable of recognizing the human reasoning process above the rage of power, as Hackett and other such unquestioning adults. Not one of the involved Washington State Court judges, holding power-damaged minds, has stood to even question Hackett's criminal actions, for the same reason Hackett's mind perpetrated them.
Judge Hackett not only criminally evaded his known legal duty to reveal in court the definition of the word, Limine, and the law which created and thus limited its application, as required by the request of the property owner, he then repeatedly threatened the property owner with unrevealed "sanctions" when the property owner offered other arrangements of words attempting to respectfully utilize process of prevailing law in Hackett's supposed court of law. Like the bank robber who decides to take a gun to the bank robbery, and US Army officers who decide to take shaped charges to a Christian church in Waco Texas, after Hackett decided to use power of office to criminally evade his known legal duty to reveal the law that limited his power of office, the power-damaged mind of Hackett therefore could not identify a logical demarcation in his subsequent tactics to maliciously defend his raw power from questions illuminating the law and the human mind's reasoning process above raw power.
Caught in the proverbial bank robbery which he thought would be easy to knock off, like every inherently unthinking petty criminal, Judge Hackett decided to proverbially shoot the proverbial teller, and then all his colleague court judges have so far decided to decree the proverbial murder as lawful to defend their own litany of identical American law school taught tactics to institutionalize the raw power of judges above all written law and human reasoning, much to the robust laughter of those who watch humans incessantly robbing each other of their rights. If you would not shoot the teller for a few square feet of dirt and a few dollars, as Hackett and the Yakima City Council dolts have proverbially done, learn how to prevent your mind from ever believing what American law school professors teach their victim students. First you train your mind, and then it will make a public fool of you if you trained it with the statements of adults instead of your most ruthless questions.
It is a certainty, by design of the human mind, that you will fall victim to the embarrassing process of unquestioning adults if you fail to learn how to effectively question power and its processes before you consider yourself an adult, not because these words say so, but because your questions will illuminate that design of the human mind if you are wise enough to start asking effective questions. Do whatever it takes to not end up like Judge Robert Hackett, Yakima City Council members or the Waco Killers. Their power-damaged minds function identically. They are respected by fools alone.
At the request of the Yakima City Council sorts, their pocket Judge Robert Hackett pulled out of his, ah, robe, the fabled limine, a summarily decreed denial of the right of free speech, which Hackett imposed in such a manner that the property owner was not allowed to discuss any fair market value for the property, other than what the City Council members had already decreed as the only fair market value. Therein, the property owner was denied his right to introduce any of his case. He was functionally ordered to sit silent in court while the City lawyer would spend a lot of tax money laboriously decreeing with tax paid expert testimony that the only facts and case before the court were what was already concluded by the City dolts.
This is what happens to a power-damaged mind. It attempts an explanation for its illogical conclusions by denying the existence of data that everyone else in the world can observe. For his limine, Hackett yammered some embarrassingly nebulous words about counsel for the property owner being barred from discussing any political issues in a court of law, and Hackett functionally decreed that whatever counsel for the property owner wished to say was political. He defined the zoning issue as a political issue, and thus barred from discussion. But the different zoning laws, written by politicians, are laws, the jurisdiction of courts of law, if you can imagine such an unusual concept, and those different laws created two different values to which the City appraiser admitted, as all appraisers recognize least they would lose their license, thus defining the issue of the case before the court, the determination of the proper value between two contradicting values. Hackett decreed that the politically created zoning law creating the value of the City's choice was germane for the court discussion, but the politically created zoning law, and also an additional court created zoning law, creating a contradicting value was not germane for discussion in court.
That is how thoroughly, petty power will addle an originally normal human mind. Judge Robert Hackett's mind actually believed his recorded words as he spoke, and cannot understand the above paragraph even if it were his mind's only task in life, and you handed him a dictionary. Yakima City Council member Paul George, Washington State Appellate Court Chief Judge Stephen M. Brown and their titled colleagues also cannot understand the above paragraph, as their actions prove. They are squandering a lot of tax money, and wasting a lot of time attempting to sustain that inherently untenable contradiction, rather than easily resolve it. Given the choice, would you rather be publicly ridiculed for being so stupid you cannot figure out the contradiction illuminated in the above paragraph, or being so stupid you cannot figure out how to simply tell the truth when the truth is verified to you and everyone around you, by your own answers to questions? Those are the only choices available to power-damaged minds which attempt to sustain contradictions by attempting the contradiction of lying about the first contradictions. If City Council member Paul George and Appellate Court Judge Stephen Brown can figure out the contradiction, as they might attempt to claim upon seeing those words in public, why are they spending taxpayer money attempting to sustain it in ongoing court process, rather than resolve it, if not for the immutable demand of raw power above reasoning, a contradiction within their mind? Do not let that happen to your otherwise priceless mind. Those pitiable victims of their titles will eventually die of old age still clueless of the human mind's reasoning process which can easily resolve such simple contradictions.
This case before Judge Hackett's court was a jury trial. The amusingly rabid minds of American court judges are most enraged by the authority and duty of impartial jurors, inherently equal humans with reasoning minds often uncorrupted by government power of office. The impartial citizen jury, described by the writers of the US Constitution as the most brilliant device in human history, to preclude government tyranny over its citizens, was instituted within the American court process to limit the inherent corruption of routinely lying court judges and lawyers, and the contradicted statute and case laws they routinely pull out of their, ah, robes and suits.
Therefore Hackett conducted the court process to deny the property owner all of his rights, before the jury was allowed to enter the court. That is one of the many law school taught processes that American court judges have instituted to treat jurors like mushrooms, keeping them in the dark and feeding them feces, so the subsequent lies and feces fed to them by corrupted court judges, such as "instructions to the jury" seem palatable. If you do not learn how to ask questions to discover the tactics that power-damaged minds utilize to make fools of unquestioning people, you will end up like most American adults who stumble into jury duty, and believe the most ludicrously obvious government lies to therefore convict and imprison people who harmed no one, at the demand of malicious government dolts, under color of law.
The reason that America, previously the land of the free, imprisons more people than any other nation, and arrests vastly more to extract taxation by fraudulent citation, with about half of those prisoners having damaged no one and committed no actual crime under the prevailing laws, is that American adults, your parents, have verifiably become the most gullible and stupidest society on the rock. They trained their minds to believe whatever some mindless shirt with a government title says, rather than ask those mindless shirts even the most grade school level questions. That suggestion is verifiable against every question you can devise. Ask those questions, and never let the Hackett Court judges prove you to be what you will learn he proved Yakima adults on a jury to be.
Like his American court judge colleagues, Judge Robert Hackett was so vulnerable, and fearful of this common person with no title, representing the property owner and seeking only to obey the law, that after imposing the limine, Hackett recklessly brandished his proverbial guns to threaten the property owner to further protect Hackett's personal power above the law.
Power is infinitely more vulnerable to human reasoning than you currently suspect.
If you have a parent or grandparent who is a lawyer, judge or law professor, you may be proud that they are so clever as to have devised, instituted and defended the grand array of malicious little tricks to cheat unsuspecting people out of their rights, to damage those people at whim, under color of law. But if your parent or grandparent does not teach you each of those itemized tricks, without omission, to thus train you to be equally as dishonest and malicious to the core of your soul, then he or she is leaving you vulnerable to later being easily cheated out of your rights, property and money with those clever tricks wielded by other greedy lawyers and judges, again proving the maliciousness of such sorts, victimizing even their own children and grandchildren. Power-damaged minds will sacrifice their own children before they willingly surrender any portion of the power that infects their minds, by design of power. You may easily ascertain the intent of your lawyer, judge or law professor patent or grandparent, or brother or sister, by asking them some simple questions, to which you must write their answers, in their presence.
Ask them, with pen and paper in hand: By what precise, itemized process can an inferior law, contradicted by a superior law, be successfully imposed upon a person to make a lawful demand of that person or to fine or jail that person? Has an inferior law ever been imposed to damage a person otherwise protected under a superior law? Precisely which words must be stated at which time, and what actions exercised, by a person brought before a court, to retain all of his or her rights under the highest law of the land for each action at question or arising within the court? And: Precisely which words must be stated at which time, and what actions exercised, by a person brought before a court, to retain all of his or her rights under the common law? Who is legally liable to reveal and certify under penalty of law, the highest applicable law for an action in question, at the request of a citizen upon whom a demand is made under claim of authority in law? Precisely which words are required to be said, at what time, to cause a law to be fully revealed, without lawful evasion by the person imposing a demand under claim of authority in law? If a law is written in a manner, such as to include foreign words not in the common dictionary, that it verifiably cannot be understood by the common people, and can only be understood by law school graduates, can the common people be lawfully punished or damaged for not obeying that law?
There are more such questions. If you write the answers of our lawyer, judge or law professor parent in their presence, you will easily be able to ascertain when your parent is attempting to deceive you, and thus defraud you of your rights, to thus protect the raw power of your parent, or if your parent starts the process to train your mind to be as dishonest and malicious as himself or herself, much to your new curiosity about how power-damaged human minds function.
If you have friends with a parent or grandparent is of those professions, ask them to ask such questions. Without the accurate answers, you are nothing more than cheap, gullible prey for inherently self-serving lawyers, judges, police and ignorant Yakima City Council members.
Therefore, Hackett repeatedly threatened unrevealed "sanctions", if counsel for the property owner did or said anything not of the whim of Judge Hackett, while refusing to reveal what those sanctions were, or reveal what would not suit Hackett's unknown whims. The horribly power-damaged minds of Judge Hackett and so far all of the Washington State Court system judges and other court officers, genuinely and sincerely believe that their process constitutes the administration of written law. While their minds can rattle off hundreds of laws that limit the personal power of untitled citizens, such as the power to rob a bank, the minds of the court officers literally cannot identify or even comprehend any written laws that limit the power of court officers. In contrast to their rhetorical tap dancing upon seeing the previous sentence in print, the proof of it is in their actions and subsequent reaction to the written record of their actions. Holding the written court record proving the contradictions, the Washington State Superior, Appellate and Supreme Court judges have stated by their response on record that no contradictions exist. Except for a process well beyond the scope of this website, while a few certain well designed expressions can cause the power-damaged mind to recognize a contradiction for about 20 seconds at the most, it immediately reverts to its expression of illogical conclusions, and promptly flees the source of that mentally anguishing experience.
But even those tactics were not enough for Judge Hackett, as inherent to the insatiable and thoroughly vulnerable nature of power within a human mind.
Counsel for the property owner respectfully expressed a variety of word arrangements, at each of Hackett's traditional tactics, to offer all the proverbial rope Hackett demanded to proverbially hang himself, while counsel respectfully held his laughter at the comedy.
Note that in written law, words hold their meaning, and must hold their immutable meaning defined in the dictionary, least the word, Jew, could be defined with the definition of the word, criminal, and Jews could therefore be lawfully jailed or executed upon identification of their religion, by the process that the self-decreed "Honorable" Nazi German Court judges utilized. The same process of shifting, altering and replacing meanings of words was used by the old dead British kings and other kings of old, which resulted in the reaction of wiser minds who created and instituted the rule of written law, claimed to be the rule of those now obviously wrong Americans.
It is the known and taught legal duty of all officers of the law and officers of the courts to recognize that words hold their meanings, and the meanings are immutable, as a maxim of law.
During court process before the aforementioned mushrooms were brought into the court room, and at a certain point, counsel for the property owner respectfully mentioned certain of the principles of the prevailing law which defended the property owner from the inferior laws being unlawfully imposed by Judge Hackett.
Judge Robert Hackett responded:
And the court, of its own initiative, Mr. Buchanan, will cut you off at the ankles (pause), (with emphasis) literally, if you even breathe a word that would suggest any of those principles.
1. Despite the meaning of Judge Hackett's words being promptly called to his attention by counsel for the property owner, and the maxim of law that words must retain their meaning, likewise stated, Judge Hackett did not retract his words, and instead reinforced them with further but less dramatic threats. Judge Hackett clearly intended the full impact of his threat of torture, among the others, to be conveyed.
2. The words indisputably define physical torture, literally. The action would impose severe pain without immediately killing a person, and would permanently, severely maim a person who was kept alive by stopping the resulting bleeding. Judge Hackett holds the known legal duty to understand the meaning of the words he used, literally, of which he was reminded without his retracting them.
3. For even a person steeled by such life experiences as war and varied other high risk situations requiring thought under stress, as was the case with counsel for the property owner, it is clearly not rationally possible to formulate and present the detailed reasoning of law in a dynamic court of law, before a jury and a malicious judge, while under the expressed threat of torture for saying something that was not precisely defined in written words.
4. That any principles of American law cannot be stated in an American court of law, within the right to freedom of speech or plain old down on the farm common sense obviously void among idiot American court judges, under threat of torture, sanctions or any other threat of any nature, negates the authority of the involved Washington State Court system under the rule of the principles of law, or defines Judge Robert Hackett as a rouge criminal judge whose successful evasion of being arrested for his known action of record again negates the authority of the Washington State Court system, which you will watch become a national issue, much to your amusement. Small City Council members who pocket a local court judge are therefore usually too stupid to select a judge who will not widely illuminate their mutual crimes.
5. Counsel for the property owner immediately asked to be informed of the precise words he was not allowed to state under threat of torture, and shown those words in the law so that he could obey the law. He stated that he could not second guess the mind of the judge to know which words he could not say. Judge Hackett refused to reveal what words he could not state, or any related law, to leave counsel for the property owner literally unable to present any rational case involving principles of law in a court of law.
6. After Judge Hackett refused to identify what words counsel for the property owner was not allowed to speak, or reveal any law authorizing such a demand, leaving said counsel under an ambiguous, arbitrary, capricious and unknowable demand negating his ability to present a case, said counsel twice again respectfully attempted to achieve a useful clarification of Hackett's decree, only to have Hackett interrupt him and allow no further discussion of the issue. Power-damaged minds are categorically dependent upon silencing the process of human reasoning, because the process of reasoning destroys the concept of otherwise flawlessly addicting power within a human mind. While it is obvious to a questioning young person why titled court judges threaten torture to silence reasoning, and titled US Air Force bomber pilots bomb villages of women and children who could reveal the reasoning for not wishing to kowtow to Washington DC idiots, adults remain clueless because they trained their mind to silence children rather than exchange reasoning with children, as proven by the actions of adults mindlessly waving the American flag when another foreign village is bombed and another American citizen is silenced in court. If you do not learn how to effectively question adults, only a few questions reveal your embarrassing ignorance after you become an adult. And law school will leave you as pitiably embarrassing as Hackett and his judicial colleagues categorically dependent upon silencing the expression of human reasoning.
7. The criminal charge of contempt of court, inherently applicable to all people equally, regardless of their employment as a court judge, defined by either impeding due process of law or showing disrespect for the court, is the least of Judge Hackett's crimes for obviously impeding due process of law in a court of law. Threats of physical torture are not a lawful process in court, and clearly impede its due process, that is, until the Washington State Supreme Court judges finalize their currently created common law making such threats a lawful part of due process of law as the highest law for that action in the State of Washington. Criminals can either rely on this new case law within the common law, to lawfully threaten judges with torture, to impede process of law, or the property owner was criminally defrauded of his rights. Two laws cannot lawfully contradict each other without one prevailing, within the rule of written law.
8. That Judge Robert Hackett's mind, representing that of American Court judges who have not expressed dissent in defense of their profession, holds absolute contempt for the principles of law, in flawless obedience to the demands of raw personal power infecting his brain, was illuminated in his words and actions of record. If you respect American court judges, you are the reason lawyers privately describe and laugh at the astonishing gullibility of the masses. That the lawyers are more self-fooled than the masses, is beyond their comprehension and does not negate their routine laughter at people who respect court judges. While Army privates foolishly obey Army captains, rather than question their idiot orders, spiraling each of them into more laughable idiocy, the privates still routinely ridicule the idiot captains, but not nearly enough. There is no actual respect for superior officers, except among fools, because the unfooled human mind respects reasoning above conclusions, by design of the human mind. Who but a fool seeks to be respected by unquestioning fools?
9. Judge Robert Hackett, and each of the judges and court officers named on the home page of this website, who have not corrected Hackett's action, have now indisputably defined American courts as Cuban-styled courts wherein threats of torture are a lawful process to silence a citizen from defending himself with respectfully expressed principles of written law. Worse. It may be only American-styled courts where threats of torture are lawful, because the equally power-damaged minds of the Washington DC propaganda artists are most likely lying when they describe Cuban, Chinese, Taliban, Iranian, North Korean and other supposedly enemy courts as utilizing threats of torture. The record of this case is indelible, available to the public, and being read by Cubans, Chinese, North Koreans, Iranians and people in other countries who rightfully ridicule Americans. If American government sorts speak, they obviously lie, and if you do not learn how to effectively question adults, obvious lies will become the highest ability of your mind, defining you to the world as an American. Not even one adult in the Yakima City government, Washington State Courts and certain other institutions informed of this case, can identify a contradiction in threatening a person with torture to silence the respectful expression of principles of law in a court of law, as proven by their void of reaction. They leave even their own offspring under this new highest law of the State of Washington. You are on your own to learn the knowledge to defend yourself and your rights from obviously gullible, malicious adults, because the adults are training you to not ask them effective questions. Read that again.
10. After all the excuses and rhetorical tap dancing that the equally addled minds of Hackett's judicial and lawyer colleagues, and their fellow unquestioning sorts, may attempt to defend that action, nothing prevails above the concept that a threat of anything adverse, not found in the exact words of a revealed and certified prevailing law, may be rationally used to silence the respectful expression of the principles of law in a court of law. Do not let happen to your mind what happened to the minds of adults who facilitated this level of corruption and malicious illogicality.
Courts of written law were invented by wise people, so that the Neanderthal process of unthinking knuckle-draggers threatening physical violence and killing people to resolve identified contradictions, which ascertains who has the most muscle between their ears, would be replaced with peaceful forums of patiently expressed human reasoning to resolve contradictions by the superior and progressively advancing process of the human mind's reasoning ability and intelligence. But Neanderthal knuckle-draggers with the most muscle between their ears, who are too cowardice to just go join a war somewhere to feed their meat-head ego, routinely weaseled their way into American court judge jobs, by paying off crooked political parties, with political support and money, after being trained to be categorically dishonest in law schools. Therefore the originally designed court forums for human reasoning have sunk back down to the Neanderthal threats of physical violence backed by unquestioning armed thugs called court security, to silence commonly intelligent humans who utilize the human mind for reasoning, as undeniably proven by the judges of the Washington State Courts. This case will identify the current extent of that inherent process of simple corruption of power among inherently unquestioning human adults.
Ask however many questions you need, to learn that American law schools teach and permanently entrench raw dishonesty and thus human stupidity, above all other concepts, to the mind of every victim so naive and gullible as to go to law school. The entire intellectual ability of all the American law schools and all of their professors with all of their titles and credentials, cannot produce even one graduate who can figure out how to write a prevailing law in the English language, that is understandable to the common, educated, literate people, as proven by the laws of the United States of America. It is an immutable maxim of logic and law that to logically demand and expect the common people to obey the written law, they must be able to understand the written law. If the common people cannot understand the written law, and can only understand what a lawyer tells them the law requires, then the common people are required to obey what lawyers tell them, not the written law, and thus are under the rule of lawyers, not the rule of written law. The rule of lawyers, who are inherently fallible and unpredictable personalities like kings, if they can decree the law to be whatever they tell any particular person, because the law is otherwise not understandable, define their society as an intellectual throwback to the knuckle-draggers, and define American law schools as the same. Further, if lawyers can successfully tell the common people what the law requires of them, the process upon which their costly profession is predicated, but cannot write on paper those same words that successfully convey the knowledge, as the written law, the controlling contradictions of lawyers, identified in certain questions elsewhere, is proven. Lawyers, like judges, are lying to you when they tell you what the law requires, least they need only show you, and certify what they show you. It is the staff lawyers who actually pen the laws, codes, ordinances, regulations, rules of the court, and an array of such demands of written law, for the politicians, bureaucrats and their ilk. It is therefore only the lawyers, products of law schools, who have obviously made the inferior laws in the United States of America as undecipherable, hopelessly complexified and not understandable to the common people, to such an extent that even the most basic questions reveal that lawyers, judges and other government dolts also do not understand the law, many of them now privately admitting to the fact. The inherent evolution of defended corruption, contradictions and dishonesty creates a proverbial, insatiable monster that eventually must eat the fools who fed it. In private, American lawyers and judges robustly laugh at the common suggestion of simply writing laws that are understandable to the common people, a laughably easy task. To do so would collapse the wealth and power of the massive institution of American lawyers/judges. Power never willingly surrenders any portion of itself in the mind it infects, least it could not exist as a concept in the reasoning-based design of the human mind. Lawyers/judges, in their capacity as such, are dishonest and thus stupid, to the core of their mind and soul, not because I say so, but because your effective questions can easily prove the case. They are pitiable victims of their craving for intellectually useless titles, power and wealth.
Despite the process being readily available, no process is being used to select wise people, or even commonly honest people, or even people who comprehend the meaning of the words they use, for American court judge jobs. The opposite process is obviously utilized. Only meatheads trained to be fundamentally dishonest by law schools, are allowed to be selected as court judges. The law schools trained their unquestioning students to use Latin in an English speaking society, if you can imagine anything more illogical and needless. They are trained to use an array of other scummy self-serving tricks of the lawyer trade, to make laws not understandable by the common people, to thus make the common people dependent upon the inherently resultant lies of costly lawyers and judges for the knowledge of what common people are allowed and not allowed to do by the illusion of social authority in the hands of people trained to be dishonest. Lawyers are so well trained, as the result of being trained to never question their superiors, that they actually believe themselves, rather than question their glaringly contradicted actions, and cannot understand this paragraph, even if you hand them a dictionary. The resulting spiral of corruption and social damage within the American system of law and jurisprudence was inherent and a foregone conclusion, by design of the power-damaged human mind. Of course the ultimate collapse of that illogical, highly damaging system within a species predicated on the human mind, is inherent. Humans are not sufficiently intelligent to fool all of the humans all of the time. You would wisely prefer to be among those who can enjoy the show, by learning how to ask effective questions, rather than be among those typical unquestioning, confused American adults, such as court judges, who cannot figure out the plain English expressions on this website even if you hand them a dictionary and offer to answer their every question.
Amusingly and inherently, even that was not enough for the classically power-damaged, flawlessly vulnerable mind of Judge Robert Hackett. After his several other amusing ploys of record not mentioned herein for brevity, during the process to ascertain which lies he would tell the jury under the guise of the judge's instructions to the jury, Judge Hackett established the new common law, so far upheld by the Washington State Supreme Court, that it is a crime to mention to jurors that it is possible for a judge to make a mistake in representing the law to the jury. The judge denied that right of freedom of speech, and parroted to the jury only the instructions written by the lawyer for the City Council chaps, functionally ordering them to find in favor of the City and against the property owner who was already denied the right to even present his case to the jury.
If you are not robustly laughing at the addled minds of court judges who routinely decree that everything not suiting a judge's whim constitutes a crime, and that it is not possible for judges to ever make a mistake, and who are therefore God, you are missing the only show adults can produce. If your parents or anyone else suggests that you should respect court judges, show them this website, and do not train your mind to respect your gullible parents as a substitute for respectfully questioning them with the most ruthless questions you can devise, least you end up like the adults who respect gross perfidy and even the functional claim of American court judges to be God, by respecting American court judges or those who foolishly respect them. But of course if you are ever caught in their court bailiwick, rhetorically feed them the phony respect they demand, to humor their reptilian minds.
Again, at issue is not the poor sad idiot Yakima City Council chaps and their equally identified pocket court judges maliciously robbing yet another victim of his rights and a paltry bit of property and money. This website will change nothing of that process, by design. Tomorrow more American government thugs and their Neanderthal court judges will more maliciously trammel more people on the path to the inescapable collapse of the thoroughly corrupted, power-based rather than reasoning-based, American government empire. Idiot law school professors will continue to entrench tactics of fundamental dishonesty into the minds of unquestioning law school students, to increase the social contradictions that idiot adults think are resolved with more lawyers thus creating more law school professor positions, as is the demand of the concept of power itself. At issue is your mind's ability to identify contradictions to logic, that is, conclusions which do not conform to the data used to create the conclusions, and devise questions that resolve the contradictions in face of any questions. Seek to train your mind to recognize the process of human reasoning before you lose your opportunity by accepting any adult titles which you will then defend above reasoning. Because you are a part of the human show, your goal is to learn enough to enjoy the show, rather than be confused and victimized by it.
Some of Judge Robert Hackett's other examples of lawlessness and flat hilarious stupidity, in his official capacity as a public official, will be illuminated elsewhere on this website as it is developed. You will laugh more robustly to observe the further process of Hackett, representing the intellectual void of American court judges on a future page of this website, when after he decreed that since he decreed that the property owner was not allowed to present his case, no case therefore existed, and the property owner had therefore wasted the City and court's time by showing up in court at the order of the City and court, and therefore the property owner was required to pay for the City's lawyer, and the court therefore seized the property owner's money to pay for the City lawyer to seize the property owner's property. If you are not laughing yourself to tears at the scrambled, malicious criminal minds of American court judges and small city officials, you are missing the only show they offer the human phenomenon.
Besides the web pages for each of the named judges and court officers, you may next enjoy the web page, yet being written, about how a jury of Yakima valley chronologically defined adults, as selected by government, responded to a court case in which they were openly aware that only the government was allowed to present its case, against an unlawfully silenced fellow citizen not allowed to present his case to the jury. You will laugh yourself to tears, and never claim to be an adult as defined by those in the Yakima valley. You will never invest any money or effort in the Yakima valley where mental midget kings with court judge jobs, who claim the power of God, have stripped the people of their rights and the protection of written law, while the unquestioning Yakima valley serfs not only do as they are told by those dim-witted divine kings, but maliciously attack any fellow citizen who dares to ask even rudimentary questions of the most glaring government contradictions. Pavlov's dog knew enough to ask more questions than Yakima valley adults ask, each time he heard the bell ring. Government judges and lawyers can fool all of the jurors selected by government, all of the time, with the most laughable lies that would not fool even Pavlov's dog. The greatest insult to an American's intelligence is being selected by the government, as a juror for a trial. If you fit that computerized government profile of unquestioning minds whose chain can be jerked in any direction by anyone with a title, you would make a superlative law school student and court judge.
After those generally accurate words for effect, there are two people in the Yakima valley, out of a jury of 12, who figured out that something was wrong, and refused to find in favor of the City Council members and their judge. That may explain why the courts devised the rule that only 10 out of 12 jurors are required to find in favor of the government for cases of this nature. That leaves 83% of Yakima valley adults incapable of understanding that something is wrong with a court case in which only the government is allowed to present its case. Do not let your mind end up as flat horribly dumb as Yakima valley adults. It will, if you do not ask the questions that adults are too cowardice to ask.
Of course I could be in error in everything I write and say. One need only learn how to ask effective questions to ascertain what is, from what is said to be. Do that, or end up as embarrassing as the gullible American adults who do not effectively question the government authority figures who are easily defrauding even their own offspring and other American adults, out of their fundamental human rights, for nothing more than petty personal power worthless to the human phenomenon, and destroying the reasoning ability of the minds it infects.
Justice Gerry Alexander
Justice Mary Fairhurst
Justice Barbara Madsen
Justice Sandra O'Connor
Judge Heather Van Nuys
The other court sorts, and the page about the jury, to be added later.